This framework is a product of the World Values Survey, which Wikipedia describes as: "an ongoing academic project by social scientists to assess the state of sociocultural, moral, religious, and political values of different cultures around the world".
Here is a good explanation by Robin Hanson, Economics professor at George Mason University.
I'm using this framework as a way of thinking rationally about important recurring social disputes, hopefully allowing us to expose some of our biases and have a more intelligent debate.
The four-quadrant graphic is from a 1997 paper by Ronald Englehart and Marita Carballo, which is available here. If the authors or their representatives come across this site and want more detailed attribution, just let me know.